by Internet Medical Society
A swirl of hormones and several changes are part of this phase. Know some steps of this process
1. The beginning of puberty
At about 8 years of age, the hypothalamus releases a hormone called gonadotropin (GnRH), which travels to the pituitary gland. There, the production of two other hormones is triggered: luteinizing (LH) and follicle-stimulating (FSH). They stimulate the ovaries to make estrogen and progesterone.
Like boys, girls produce testosterone, but to a lesser extent. It is this hormone that causes the cartilage of the larynx, where the vocal folds are, to increase by around 4 millimeters. This makes the voice less high-pitched.
The girl's body takes on the shape of a woman. In the presence of estrogen, fat cells in the thighs, buttocks and belly region grow and multiply. The places where the fat is deposited vary a lot according to the biotype of each girl.
In the first two years of the menstrual period, the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovary axis is not yet mature. Therefore, the cycles are quite irregular. The girl may have periods with varied flow and frequency, sometimes without ovulation.
Testosterone again. It is one of the main responsible for stimulating the sebaceous glands, which secrete the skin's natural fat. This sebum accumulates in the pores and serves as food for bacteria, causing inflammation with pus, the spine.
When testosterone, released by the adrenal glands and ovaries, falls into the bloodstream, the first hairs on the armpits, legs and pubic area begin to grow. It is that hair follicles are stimulated by the hormone.
The first sign of puberty is not menstruation, but the appearance of the breast bud, with an elevation of the areola and papilla. Estrogen, the ovarian hormone, is the conductor that governs this transformation with a certain date to occur - usually between 8 and 10 years.
8. New odors
Sex hormones activate the sweat glands, which start to produce more sweat. As the liquid is a rich food for bacteria, they proliferate in the armpits and feet. That is why these regions start to emit unpleasant smells.
In childhood, the average growth rate for girls is 5 to 7 centimeters per year. Before menarche, the first menstruation, reaches 12 centimeters per year. After menstruation, they continue to grow at a slower rate. It is the result of the sum of sex hormones and GH, growth hormone, which multiplies cells and increases protein synthesis in them.
The hormone FSH causes the growth of follicles, the cells that guard eggs. One of them develops, breaks and launches the egg in the tube.
The endometrium grows
The follicle produces estrogen and the corpus luteum, which releases progesterone. Hormones leave the endometrium, the inner lining of the uterus, full of vessels and thick.
If pregnancy does not occur, and if the cycle is 28 days, 14 days after ovulation, the corpus luteum degenerates and stops producing hormones. With this, there is the desquamation of the endometrium.
From childhood to adolescence
It is through the growth of the breasts that doctors monitor the development of the girls. For this, they follow Tanner's classification. There are five stages. In M1, the breasts are still infantile. In M2, there is the development of these glands - it is the breast bud. Then, in M3, there is a greater growth of the breast and areola, but without separating their contours, which only happens in M4. In M5, the breasts have an adult aspect and the areolar contour is incorporated to that of the breast. Menstruation usually occurs between stages M3 and M4.
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